April 1, 2021

TypeScript GraphQL Code Generator – Generate GraphQL Types with Apollo Codegen Tutorial

Khalil Stemmler
Developer Advocate

Don Norman, the author of “The Design of Everyday Things” has a philosophy for what he believes constitutes good design. Don says that good design is primarily discoverability and feedback.

For example, when you encounter something new (like, a new codebase), how quickly can you discover what you can do (discoverability)? And then after you’ve taken some action, how immediately do you get to know if what you did was correct (feedback)?

Typed languages like TypeScript give us compile-time types, and types act as an excellent form of feedback. They let us know if what we’re attempting to do is going to work — and they let us know immediately.

For developers building client-side GraphQL applications using Apollo Client and React, compiling it with TypeScript is a good idea. But without compile-time types on our GraphQL operations, we have to wait until we execute our queries and mutations to tell if we’re doing something wrong.

In this post, you’ll learn how to use Apollo’s GraphQL codegen to generate TypeScript types for GraphQL operations in your Apollo Client project.

Apollo’s GraphQL Codegen

The Apollo CLI (which lives on GitHub at apollographql/apollo-tooling) contains a collection of helpful utilities to assist us with maintaining GraphQL applications in production.

One of the tools from the CLI is the GraphQL codegen feature. It lets us:

  1. Download any GraphQL schema using a GraphQL endpoint
  2. Generate TypeScript types for queries written in an Apollo Client project (given a valid GraphQL schema)

And that’s exactly what we’ll do. Let’s get started.


Getting started

The project I’ll use to demonstrate how to generate TypeScript types for GraphQL operations is apollographql/ac3-state-management-examples (the apollo-remote-state example, to be specific).

You can fork, download, or browse the code online to see the full setup.


Assuming we’re in the root directory of an Apollo Client project, we need to install two development dependencies: apollo and @types/graphql.

npm install --save-dev apollo @types/graphql

The apollo dependency is the Apollo CLI while the @types/graphql dependency gives us better type completion for GraphQL operations.

Downloading the schema

Next, we’d like to download the GraphQL schema that we’re working with. In the ac3-state-management-examples repo, the apollo-remote-state server lives in /server and runs at http://localhost:4000/.

With the server started, we’d like to download the server to a JSON file called graphql-schema.json.

From the root of your Apollo Client project, paste the following command:

npx apollo service:download --endpoint=http://localhost:4000/ graphql-schema.json

Note: npx apollo schema:download is an alias for this command and should also work if you swap it out for npx apollo service:download.

You should now see a graphql-schema.json file in the root of your Apollo Client project directory. That’s good.

Next, we’ll use this schema + the GraphQL operations in our app to generate TypeScript types for them.

Generating types for remote GraphQL operations

A sample query

The ac3-state-management project has several queries in it already (see here). One of the queries is to get all todos from the backend GraphQL API. It looks like this:

// apollo-remote-state/client/src/operations/queries/getAllTodos.tsx
import { gql } from "@apollo/client";

export const GET_ALL_TODOS = gql`
  query GetAllTodos {
    todos {
      edges {
        node {

Let’s see if we can generate the appropriate TypeScript types for this query so that we can get type completion when we use it in our components.

Generating types for all operations

The command to generate TypeScript types for all GraphQL operations written in our Apollo Client project is as follows:

npx apollo codegen:generate --localSchemaFile=graphql-schema.json --target=typescript --tagName=gql

What we’re doing here is telling the Apollo CLI that we’d like to execute the GraphQL codegen feature (denoted by the codegen:generate option). To do this, we use the localSchemaFile, that is — our graphql-schema.json . The GraphQL codegen feature uses this schema file to verify that the queries we’re writing will compile against our graph, which we’ve pulled locally. The target flag indicates the output type (TypeScript), and the tagName is the template that the CLI looks for in our code in order to distinguish what is and what isn’t a GraphQL query.

If all goes well, you should see a message in your console like the following:

And if it doesn’t work — don’t panic; there’s likely a great reason why. We’ll discuss below. Keep reading!

You should now find __generated__ folders within your project containing the generated type definitions for your GraphQL operations. Here’s an example of what the type defs for GetAllTodos looks like:

/* tslint:disable */
/* eslint-disable */
// This file was automatically generated and should not be edited.

// ====================================================
// GraphQL query operation: GetAllTodos
// ====================================================

export interface GetAllTodos_todos_edges_node {
  __typename: "Todo";
  id: number;
  text: string;
  completed: boolean;

export interface GetAllTodos_todos_edges {
  __typename: "TodosEdge";
  node: GetAllTodos_todos_edges_node;

export interface GetAllTodos_todos {
  __typename: "TodosConnection";
  edges: (GetAllTodos_todos_edges | null)[];

export interface GetAllTodos {
  todos: GetAllTodos_todos;


Using the generated GraphQL operation types

Now, we can utilize our types for the GraphQL operations in our code. Here’s a stripped down example of what a TodoList component might look like utilizing our new types.

import React from 'react'
import TodoList from '../components/TodoList';
import { Todos } from '../models/Todos';
import { useQuery } from '@apollo/client';
import { GetAllTodos } from '../operations/__generated__/GetAllTodos'; // Import
import { GET_ALL_TODOS } from '../operations/queries/getAllTodos';

export default function VisibleTodoList () {
  const { 
   loading: isTodosLoading, 
   data: todosConnection, 
   error: todosError 
  } = useQuery<GetAllTodos>( // Use the type here for type safety

  if (isTodosLoading) return <div>Loading...</div>
  if (todosError) return <div>An error occurred {JSON.stringify(todosError)}</div>
  if (!todosConnection) return <div>None</div>;

  const todos: Todos = todosConnection.todos.edges.map((t) => t?.node) as Todos;

  return <TodoList 

Generating types for client-only types

If the codegen:generate script did not work for you, a common reason is that we’re working with client-only types.

Client-only types are types that exist only on the client, but not in the remote GraphQL API. We can use them, along with Apollo Client 3’s Reactive Variables API to represent local state. Here’s an example of a query that uses the @client directive for a client-only type.

import { gql } from "@apollo/client";

export const GET_VISIBILITY_FILTER = gql`
  query GetVisibilityFilter {
    visibilityFilter @client {

How do we remedy this? We extend the SDL of our graph with a local schema.

Extending your graph with a local schema

Since the Apollo CLI relies on a GraphQL schema to determine what is and what isn’t in your graph, and which operations can be typed, and which ones can’t, we can extend the graph with our client-only types by creating a local schema file.

Create a new file in the root of your project called local-schema.graphql. Here’s where we’ll put the types that exist locally but not remotely. In this case, since visibilityFilter sits right on the root Query type, we’ll need to use the extends keyword to add our new type to Query.

// local-schema.graphql
type VisibilityFilter {
  id: String!
  displayName: String!

extend type Query {
  visibilityFilter: VisibilityFilter!

Perfect. Now, we need to use this new file in addition to the original graphql-schema.json file that we generated from backend GraphQL API. Paste the following script into your command line:

apollo codegen:generate --localSchemaFile=graphql-schema.json,local-schema.graphql --target=typescript --tagName=gql

And now, we’ve got our TypeScript type definitions for both our remote GraphQL API and our local state client-only types as well!

npm GraphQL codegen scripts

You may want to run these scripts periodically throughout the lifetime of your project. I recommend saving your codegen command as an NPM script. Here’s an example of what it might look like for you.

"scripts": {
  "download-schema": "apollo service:download --endpoint=http://localhost:4000/ graphql-schema.json",
  "codegen": "npm run download-schema && apollo codegen:generate --localSchemaFile=graphql-schema.json,client-schema.graphql --target=typescript --tagName=gql"


We just learned how to use the graphQL codegen feature from Apollo’s CLI tool to generate TypeScript types for GraphQL operations in an Apollo Client project! That should help you move a little faster and write less bugs.

Written by

Khalil Stemmler


Developer Advocate at Apollo GraphQL ⚡ Author of solidbook.io ⚡ Advanced TypeScript & DDD at khalilstemmler.com

Read more by Khalil Stemmler

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