Apollo Docs

Building a server

Estimated time: About 8 minutes.

Apollo Server provides an easy way for new, or existing, applications to get running quickly. Existing applications can take advantage of middleware and new applications can utilize an integrated web server. Both of these servers can be configured with minimal configuration and follow industry best practices.


We need to install two packages to use Apollo Server, and a third package when using Apollo Server as middleware in an existing application:

  • apollo-server: The Apollo Server package, which provides most of the functionality.
  • graphql: A support library, provided by Facebook. It won't be explicitly used in these examples, but is a required module and shared amongst all GraphQL libraries in the project.

To install, run:

npm install apollo-server graphql

When adding Apollo Server to an existing application, a corresponding HTTP server support package needs to be installed as well. For example, for Express this is:

npm install apollo-server-express graphql

Creating a server

The fastest way to get started with GraphQL is by creating a new server. Apollo Server will set an Express server up for you as long as you provide it with typeDefs, which is a string representing your GraphQL schema, and resolvers, which is a map of functions that implement your schema.

In the following examples, we'll import two things from apollo-server:

  • The ApolloServer class, which we'll use to instantiate and start the server.
  • The gql template literal tag, used for writing GraphQL within JavaScript code.
const { ApolloServer, gql } = require('apollo-server');

// The GraphQL schema
const typeDefs = gql`
  type Query {
    "A simple type for getting started!"
    hello: String

// A map of functions which return data for the schema.
const resolvers = {
  Query: {
    hello: () => 'world'

const server = new ApolloServer({

See the API Reference for additional options which can be passed to the ApolloServer constructor.

Starting a server

At this point, we're ready to start accepting connections to the server. This is done by calling the listen method on the instance of ApolloServer which was created in the previous step:

server.listen().then(({ url }) => {
  console.log(`🚀 Server ready at ${url}`)

By default, Apollo Server listens on port 4000. See the API reference for additional listen options, including how to configure the port.

Running the server

With the above configuration complete, we can now start the Node application, with Apollo Server, for the first time. This varies, but assuming a standard index.js configuration, might be as simple as node index.js.

After you start the server it should print a message to the console indicating that it's ready:

$ node index.js
🚀 Server ready at http://localhost:4000/

At this point, if the message isn't printed to the console, it's possible that something went wrong. Double-check the previous steps in this guide, and try comparing the configuration to our pre-configured example on Glitch.

GraphQL Playground

To explore the newly created GraphQL API, open a browser to the link shown in the console, http://localhost:4000/. Apollo Server sets up GraphQL Playground for you so that you can start running queries and exploring schemas quickly.

To run a query, copy the following query and then press the "▶️" button:

query {

And the server should return a simple response:

  "data": {
    "hello": "world"

GraphQL operations should also be sent directly to http://localhost:4000/ and Apollo Client should be configured with this endpoint. Only GET requests from a web browser will result the GraphQL Playground interface being served. Furthermore, by default, GraphQL Playground will only be enabled during development.

Server integrations

Depending on whether we are creating a new application or an existing application, the steps will vary slightly since Apollo Server must adapt to the semantics of existing servers (e.g. Express, Hapi, etc.)


Existing applications generally already have middleware in place and Apollo Server works along with those middleware. To integrate with Apollo Server, we'll pass it into the server.applyMiddleware method as app to add the Apollo Server's middleware.

The existing application is frequently already named app, especially when using Express. If the application is identified by a different variable, pass the existing variable in place of app.

The following code uses the apollo-server-express package, which can be installed with npm install apollo-server-express.

const { ApolloServer, gql } = require('apollo-server-express');
const { typeDefs, resolvers } = require('./schema');

const server = new ApolloServer({
  // These will be defined for both new or existing servers

server.applyMiddleware({ app }); // app is from an existing express app

app.listen({ port: 4000 }, () =>
  console.log(`🚀 Server ready at http://localhost:4000${server.graphqlPath}`)

Hapi follows the same pattern with apollo-server-express replaced with apollo-server-hapi and app replaced with Hapi server. applyMiddleware registers plugins, so it should be called with await.

When transitioning from apollo-server to an integration package, running npm uninstall apollo-server will remove the extra dependency.


Apollo Server works great in "serverless" environments such as Amazon Lambda and Microsoft Azure Functions. See deploying with AWS Lambda and deploying with Azure Functions for more details.

SSL/TLS Support

If you require an HTTPS connection to your Apollo Server, you can use the https module with apollo-server-express. Subscriptions can also go through an encrypted WebSocket (WSS)

Here is an example of using HTTPS in production and HTTP in development, with subscriptions:

import express from 'express'
import { ApolloServer } from 'apollo-server-express'
import typeDefs from './graphql/schema'
import resolvers from './graphql/resolvers'
import fs from 'fs'
import https from 'https'
import http from 'http'

const configurations = {
  // Note: You may need sudo to run on port 443
  production: { ssl: true, port: 443, hostname: 'example.com' },
  development: { ssl: false, port: 4000, hostname: 'localhost' }

const environment = process.env.NODE_ENV || 'production'
const config = configurations[environment]

const apollo = new ApolloServer({ typeDefs, resolvers })

const app = express()
apollo.applyMiddleware({ app })

// Create the HTTPS or HTTP server, per configuration
var server
if (config.ssl) {
  // Assumes certificates are in .ssl folder from package root. Make sure the files
  // are secured.
  server = https.createServer(
      key: fs.readFileSync(`./ssl/${environment}/server.key`),
      cert: fs.readFileSync(`./ssl/${environment}/server.crt`)
} else {
  server = http.createServer(app)

// Add subscription support

server.listen({ port: config.port }, () =>
    '🚀 Server ready at',
    `http${config.ssl ? 's' : ''}://${config.hostname}:${config.port}${apollo.graphqlPath}`

Next steps

Now that the GraphQL server is running, it's time to dive deeper into how we'll fetch data for our types. We'll get started on that in the next step.