March 4, 2021

Building a GraphQL API – GraphQL API example

Khalil Stemmler

Khalil Stemmler

GraphQL is the modern way to create flexible, robust, and strictly-typed APIs.

In this post, we’ll walk through creating a books API from scratch. At the end, we’ll discuss the most common concerns and next steps as you build out your GraphQL API.


Getting started

Create a new project

Let’s start by creating a new folder for our project. Run the following command to create a directory and then cd into it.

mkdir graphql-api-example
cd graphql-api-example

Use npm (or Yarn) to initialize a new Node.js project.

npm init --yes

Install the dependencies

We only need two dependencies for this project: apollo-server and graphql.

npm install --save apollo-server graphql

At this point, we should have a package.json file and a node_modules folder. Let’s continue by creating the file we’ll do our work in.

Create an index.js file

We’ll keep things simple by writing all of GraphQL API code in a single file for now. Create a new index.js file at the root of your project directory.

touch index.js

Building, running, and querying our GraphQL API

Now that we’ve got our project setup, let’s build and run our GraphQL API.

Creating a schema

The schema is the structure of the data that clients can query for. Let’s create our books API. Clients can query for all books, and each book contains the title and the author of the book.

const { ApolloServer, gql } = require('apollo-server');

// A schema is a collection of type definitions (hence "typeDefs")
// that together define the "shape" of queries that are executed against
// your data.
const typeDefs = gql`
  # Comments in GraphQL strings (such as this one) start with the hash (#) symbol.

  # This "Book" type defines the queryable fields: 'title' and 'author'.
  type Book {
    title: String
    author: String

  # The "Query" type is special: it lists all of the available queries that
  # clients can execute, along with the return type for each. In this
  # case, the "books" query returns an array of zero or more Books (defined above).
  type Query {
    books: [Book]

Writing resolvers

While the schema defines the structure of our API, resolvers define where the data comes from.

Apollo Server is what we call data-source agnostic — this means that you can fetch data from any source you like (SQL & NoSQL databases, REST APIs, other GraphQL APIs, or even just static JSON).

In this example, we’ll hardcode some data.

Add the following to the end of your index.js file.

const books = [
    title: 'The Great Gatsby',
    author: 'F. Scott Fitzgerald',
    title: 'Wuthering Heights',
    author: 'Emily Brontë',

This is the data we’ll resolve! Notice that the structure matches the structure of our GraphQL schema?

Now, we’ll create the resolvers object and connect it to our books data.

// Resolvers define the technique for fetching the types defined in the
// schema. This resolver retrieves books from the "books" array above.
const resolvers = {
  Query: {
    books: () => books,

Creating the server instance

Now that we have our schema, data, and resolver, we’re ready to initialize an ApolloServer instance.

Place the following at the very end of your index.js file.

// The ApolloServer constructor requires two parameters: your schema
// definition and your set of resolvers.
const server = new ApolloServer({ typeDefs, resolvers });

// The `listen` method launches a web server.
server.listen().then(({ url }) => {
  console.log(`🚀  Server ready at ${url}`);


We’re ready to run our server. In the root directory of your project, run the following command to start your GraphQL API.

node index.js

You should now see:

🚀 Server ready at <http://localhost:4000/>

Querying your API with a GraphQL IDE

There are lots of ways to query your API (read “4 Simple Ways to Call a GraphQL API“), but we recommend starting with a GraphQL IDE.

GraphQL IDEs let you build queries, browse schemas, and test out GraphQL APIs.

Apollo Explorer is a free cloud-based GraphQL IDE that comes with a ton of productivity features to solve common pain-points we’ve heard from developers building apps with GraphQL.

To use the explorer, we’ll head to and create an account (using either GitHub or your email).

Finally, choose a name for your graph, select the “Development” graph type, add your localhost endpoint (Apollo Server’s default is http://localhost:4000), and click “Create Graph”.

And that’s it! You’re ready to start querying.

In the Operations window, paste the following query and then click the blue “Run” button query our Books API.

  books {

You should see our data on the right-hand side in the Response window!

Congrats! You’ve just created your first GraphQL API.

What next?

Continue building out your GraphQL API

Let’s not stop here. Chances are, your GraphQL API has a lot more than just one query. Check out our Apollo Server docs to learn more about the schema, resolvers, and connecting your API to real data with data sources.

Authentication & authorization

Determining who is using your API and what permissions they have is a common part of API design. I recommend starting with the Apollo Server Security docs to learn how to put user info in context and how to implement authorization in resolvers.


With great power comes great responsibility. GraphQL’s flexibility is superb, but before we deploy to production, we should take care that we protect our API from malicious requests.

I recommend starting with our blog post titled “Securing Your GraphQL API from Malicious Queries” for an overview of how to mitigate common security concerns with DoS protection, query whitelisting, size, depth, and amount limiting.

Schema splitting

In this post, we wrote all of our server code in a single file. That works when we’re just getting started, but things get unwieldy when our project grows in size.

Read this post, “Modularizing your GraphQL schema code“, to learn how to better structure your project as it grows.

Client-side GraphQL

Client-side GraphQL libraries like Apollo Client pair nicely with React and can be used to create robust web and mobile applications using GraphQL.

Check out the “Apollo Client Best Practices Series” to learn how to use Apollo Client as the state management layer in your next client application.


When you’re ready to deploy your GraphQL API to production, read our docs on Deployment. We have guides on deploying to Heroku, Lambda, Netlify, and Azure!


Got 30 minutes? Want to take our completely free GraphQL course?

You’ll learn the core components of a full-stack GraphQL app with Apollo through an interactive tutorial.

You can get started here. Enjoy!

Written by

Khalil Stemmler

Khalil Stemmler

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