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Understanding errors

Rules for schema composition


Apollo Federation implements a strict composition model. When building a gateway using the @apollo/gateway package, ApolloServer validates that the provided services compose into a valid GraphQL schema and that the gateway has all of the information it needs to execute operations against the composed schema. Any errors will fail composition. This section documents the composition errors that can be thrown by the new ApolloServer() call.

Types and extensions

  • EXTENSION_OF_WRONG_KIND: An extension is attempting to extend a different type. For example, an interface extension, extend interface MyType, would be invalid for a type definition such as type MyType.
  • EXTENSION_WITH_NO_BASE: An extension is attempting to extend a type which does not exist.

@key directives

  • KEY_FIELDS_SELECT_INVALID_TYPE: The fields argument can not have root fields that result in a list, interface, or union type.
  • KEY_FIELDS_MISSING_ON_BASE: the fields argument can not select fields that were overwritten by another service.
  • KEY_FIELDS_MISSING_EXTERNAL: On extended types, keys must reference a field marked as @external.

@external directives

  • EXTERNAL_UNUSED: For every @external field, there should be at least one @requires, @provides, or @key directive that references it.
  • EXTERNAL_TYPE_MISMATCH: All fields marked with @external must match the type definition of the base service.
  • EXTERNAL_MISSING_ON_BASE: All fields marked with @external must exist on the base type.
  • EXTERNAL_USED_ON_BASE: There should be no fields with @external on base type definitions.

@provides directives

  • PROVIDES_FIELDS_MISSING_EXTERNAL: The fields argument can only use fields marked as @external on types from external services. These external types and fields must be included in the service for validation.
  • PROVIDES_NOT_ON_ENTITY: The @provides directive can only be used on Object types with at least one @key, or Lists of such Objects.
  • PROVIDES_FIELDS_SELECT_INVALID_TYPE: The fields argument can not reference fields that result in a list or interface.

@requires directives

  • REQUIRES_FIELDS_MISSING_EXTERNAL: For every field in a @requires selection, there must be a matching @external field in the service.
  • REQUIRES_FIELDS_MISSING_ON_BASE: The fields arg in @requires can only reference fields on the base type.
  • REQUIRES_USED_ON_BASE: The requires directive may not be used on fields defined on a base type.

Enums and Scalars

  • DUPLICATE_ENUM_DEFINITION: An Enum was defined multiple times in a single service. Remove one of the definitions.
  • DUPLICATE_SCALAR_DEFINITION: A Scalar was defined multiple times in a single service. Remove one of the definitions.
  • DUPLICATE_ENUM_VALUE: A service has multiple definitions of the same Enum value. This duplicate value may be in the definition itself or enum extensions.
  • ENUM_MISMATCH: An Enum does not have identical values across all services. Even if a service does not use all enum values, they still must be provided if another service uses them. This error will list services with matching definitions like [serviceA, serviceB], [serviceC] where serviceA and serviceB have matching enum definitions, and serviceC does not match the other definitions.
  • ENUM_MISMATCH_TYPE: Enums must not use the name of a type in another service. For example, if a service defines an enum of Category, all definitions of Category in other services must also be enums.

Root Fields

  • RESERVED_FIELD_USED: The Query._service and Query._entities fields are reserved, and should not be manually defined by any service.
  • ROOT_QUERY_USED: Query is disallowed when a schema definition or extension is provided.
  • ROOT_MUTATION_USED: Mutation is disallowed when a schema definition or extension is provided.
  • ROOT_SUBSCRIPTION_USED: Subscription is disallowed when a schema definition or extension is provided.

Value Types

  • VALUE_TYPE_FIELD_TYPE_MISMATCH: Two identical types were found, however one or more of their field's types aren't the same. Value types must be identical across services.
  • VALUE_TYPE_NO_ENTITY: Two identical types were found, however it's marked as an entity in one of the services. Extend the type correctly, or make the identical types non-entities.
  • VALUE_TYPE_UNION_TYPES_MISMATCH: Two identical union types were found, however their types are not the same. Shared union types must be identical across services.
  • VALUE_TYPE_KIND_MISMATCH: A type was found with the same name and fields, however they aren't of the same kind (object, input, interface). Only value types can be duplicated across services.

Modified SDL validations

  • Unique Type Names: type definitions can not be duplicated across services, with the exception of Enums, Scalars, and value types. This is a modified version of the graphql-js validation with exclusions for Enums and Scalars, since those are required to be duplicated across services.