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Operation request format

How to send requests to Apollo Server over HTTP


Also check out this post from the Apollo blog: Making GraphQL Requests using HTTP Methods

By default, almost every IDE and client library takes care of sending in a format that supports. This article describes that format, which is also described on graphql.org and in this preliminary spec.

accepts queries and sent as POST requests. It also accepts queries sent as GET requests.

POST requests

accepts POST requests with a JSON body. A valid request contains a query , along with optional variables and an operationName (if query contains multiple possible ). You must specify a Content-Type HTTP header with type application/json.

Let's say we want to execute the following :

query GetBestSellers($category: ProductCategory) {
bestSellers(category: $category) {
title
}
}

Here's an example of a valid POST request body for that :

{
"query":"query GetBestSellers($category: ProductCategory){bestSellers(category: $category){title}}",
"operationName": "GetBestSellers",
"variables": { "category": "BOOKS" }
}

Note that operationName isn't required for this particular request body, because query includes only one definition.

You can execute this against an Apollo-hosted example server right now with the following curl command:

curl --request POST \
-H 'Content-Type: application/json' \
--data '{"query":"query GetBestSellers($category: ProductCategory){bestSellers(category: $category){title}}", "operationName":"GetBestSellers", "variables":{"category":"BOOKS"}}' \
https://rover.apollo.dev/quickstart/products/graphql

's default landing page provides a curl command you can use to execute a test on your own server:

Batching

You can send a batch of queries in a single POST request by providing a JSON-encoded array of objects, like so:

[
{
"query": "query { testString }"
},
{
"query": "query AnotherQuery{ test(who: \"you\" ) }"
}
]

If you send a batched request, responds with a corresponding array of responses.

You can disable the processing of batched requests by passing allowBatchedHttpRequests: false to the ApolloServer constructor.

GET requests

also accepts GET requests for queries (but not ). With a GET request, details (query, operationName, variables) are provided as URL parameters. The variables option is a URL-escaped JSON object.

Sending queries as GET requests can help with CDN caching.

Here's the same from POST requests formatted for a curl GET request:

curl --request GET \
https://rover.apollo.dev/quickstart/products/graphql?query=query%20GetBestSellers%28%24category%3A%20ProductCategory%29%7BbestSellers%28category%3A%20%24category%29%7Btitle%7D%7D&operationName=GetBestSellers&variables=%7B%22category%22%3A%22BOOKS%22%7D

Unlike with POST requests, GET requests do not require a Content-Type header. If you have 's CSRF prevention security feature enabled with its default configuration (highly recommended), GET requests that don't contain a Content-Type header must contain one of the following:

  • A non-empty X-Apollo-Operation-Name header
  • A non-empty Apollo-Require-Preflight header

For more details, see the CSRF prevention documentation.

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